W543 Molecular Tools for Contemporary Cotton Breeding

Date: Saturday, January 14, 2012
Time: 2:50 PM
Room: Golden Ballroom
John Z. Yu , USDA-ARS, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, College Station, TX
David Fang , USDA-ARS, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA
Ibrokhim Y. Abdurakhmonov , Center of Genomic Technologies, Institute of Genetics and Plants Experimental Biology, Tashkent , Uzbekistan
Shuxun Yu , National Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Cotton Research Institute, CAAS, Anyang, China
Richard G. Percy , USDA-ARS, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, College Station, TX
Among 50 Gossypium (cotton) species are two tetraploids (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense) and two diploids (G. arboreum, and G. herbaceum) that are domesticated to produce raw materials for global textile and oilseed industries with an increasing demand for high-yield and high-quality of cotton fiber and cottonseed. Nearly 98% of world cotton production is accounted for by the two tetraploid species; both of which have large complex genomes of 26 partially homoeologous chromosomes. While cotton genomics lags behind other major crop plants, progress is being made. Genetic improvement of the cotton plant could be accelerated with contemporary genomic tools such as DNA markers, genome maps, and detailed sequences. We report the development of innovative molecular tools for germplasm characterization, gene discovery and molecular breeding in cotton. Results produced from the collaborative research efforts demonstrate possible exploitation of abundant but underutilized genetic diversity in the Gossypium germplasm and a number of chromosome regions located in the tetraploid genome for enhanced performance of cotton productivity and quality.