Excessive fat accumulation is an economic concern for the broiler industry due to both loss of feed efficiency and the coincidence of diminished immune and reproductive function in broiler breeders. We hypothesized that the molecular pathways that are altered in chicken adipose tissue by feed restriction, a management practice used to attenuate fat gain, represent potential new targets for improved means to manipulate adipose mass in broilers. To identify these pathways we integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics of broiler adipose tissue harvested after a short term (5 hour) fast. We also defined the adipose tissue response to insulin, a key hormone in energy utilization but one whose actions in avian adipose tissue are poorly understood. Three week-old commercial broiler chickens (ISA915) were fed ad libitum, fasted for five hours, or fed but injected with anti-insulin serum. Microarray hybridizations using Affymetrix GeneChips identified 2016 genes that were differentially expressed in either treatment, vs. fed controls, after correction for multiple testing, with the vast majority of differences due to fasting (1780 genes). Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that fasting impacted expression of genes in a broad selection of pathways related to metabolism, signaling and adipogenesis. The effects of insulin neutralization largely overlapped with the response to fasting, but with more modest effects on metabolism. A comprehensive set of tissue metabolites were measured using LC-MS-MS and supported the differential gene expression profiles. Collectively, these data identify potential pathways through which fat accretion may be attenuated through genetic selection or management practices.